Win xp no longer boots

Reply

  #1  
Old 03-08-19, 07:11 AM
Member
Thread Starter
Join Date: Sep 2017
Location: USA
Posts: 47
Received 1 Vote on 1 Post
Win xp no longer boots

Yes, an old operating system. I have an old laptop that operates in Win XP Pro because I have a program for car repair that does not work on any of the newer OS. The program works fine for my needs. So I just use this laptop for access to car repair info.

Anyway, like a dummy I did a windows update, installed an old Win XP update and then decided to delete the browser Chrome as it was not working well. Figured I would just use IE. Then I lost the ability to connect to the internet. Tried going to add/remove and delete then add back the original IE. Still no connect to the internet. So I decided to go to Registry repair. Tried the one just before removing Chrome and no change. So I went to one from about 9 months ago. That was the last time I used the laptop. Now the laptop will not boot into Windows at all.

It starts normally meaning running the BIOS stuff then pulls up the Windows logo then stops and goes back to the BIOS page with the options of safe mode, last known good configuration, start normally, etc. None of these work. They all result in it going back to the BIOS page.

What should I try next?
 
Sponsored Links
  #2  
Old 03-08-19, 07:40 AM
Forum Topic Moderator
Join Date: Sep 2012
Location: USA
Posts: 800
Received 3 Votes on 2 Posts
Someone may have a simpler idea but I kinda got into this situation once as well.

1) If you still have a copy of the car repair software to reload and
2) if you have a copy of Windows XP

I did a new install.

I'd first try to find a copy of an XP startup disk. If you can get your hands on that, if you have one handy or if you have another computer handy to locate one online & can down load it to a thumb drive or disk etc. I'd try that before doing a total new install.

But, I had to do a total new install. If you have a full version of XP to install, make sure you have all three updates (I forget what its called but there was 3 of them). I went to ebay & found the updates I am referring too. Hopefully someone else can recall what its called & you can search for that.

Once I had all that, I did a fresh install & got back going. Then just reinstall your car repair software.

Remember to turn off all automatic updates one you do a clean install.

I hope this helps, but most of all, I hope someone else can give you a better option to get you going again... good luck Clancy.
 
  #3  
Old 03-08-19, 08:46 AM
Member
Thread Starter
Join Date: Sep 2017
Location: USA
Posts: 47
Received 1 Vote on 1 Post
Found a Win XP install disk and did a repair. Took as long as an install. I actually think it did do a reinstall as it asked for my product key. Anyway, it reinstalled or repaired and started up. It shows my old desktop with all the old programs. Hurray, it is back. But now I cannot get onto the internet??? It sees my local cable modem and says it is connected to the LAN. But I cannot get onto the internet. It wants to set up a home network. Yes, we have several other computers and smart phones in the house and already working fine on the internet. I am concerned if I set up a new home network these will no longer work.

I ran the network setup wizard a couple of times and it says it cannot make it work. It says an error occurred during configuration of the network on this computer.

What next?
 
  #4  
Old 03-08-19, 10:50 AM
Member
Join Date: Nov 2012
Location: USA
Posts: 1,187
Upvotes: 0
Received 11 Votes on 9 Posts
Originally Posted by clancy
Found a Win XP install disk and did a repair. Took as long as an install. I actually think it did do a reinstall as it asked for my product key. Anyway, it reinstalled or repaired and started up. It shows my old desktop with all the old programs.
...
What next?
While XP is (mostly) working,
1) do a Windows system backup to a USB drive, DVD drive or external hard drive.

2) make a "disk image" of the drive to an external drive, I've found "Macrium Reflect" is a good free option. Create a multi-gig "image file" on a drive. With the "disk image" of the XP machine, you can "photocopy" the drive onto a new (or repurposed) hard drive. You can ALSO load the "disk image" as a "virtual machine" in a faster newer computer, which will then pretend that it is the old XP computer.

3) Then find ANOTHER hard drive around the same size (or bigger) as the XP drive, hook it into the XP computer, and CLONE the main XP hard drive. You will now have a copy of the XP main drive, which you can plug into the XP computer if the original hard drive ever goes bad.

4) Find and run "magic jelly bean" and other "key finder" programs from USB drives to pull out all the old software keys stored on the hard drive.

5) Once you have all the data copied, go back and try running disk-diagnostics or chkdsk on the original XP hard drive. I also suggest seagate "seatools" for checking the health of an old hard drive, but ALSO for accessing the "hard drive odometer" which tells you how long the drive has been up and running.
 

Last edited by Hal_S; 03-08-19 at 11:09 AM.
  #5  
Old 03-08-19, 11:25 AM
Member In Good Standing
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: usa
Posts: 159
Upvotes: 0
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
I have the product key. But can’t register this old version as I still cannot get on the internet. It sees my LAN but cannot figure how to connect to the internet through my cable modem that is where I am stuck now. Thanks
 
  #6  
Old 03-08-19, 11:30 AM
Member
Join Date: Feb 2006
Location: USA
Posts: 6,534
Upvotes: 0
Received 3 Votes on 3 Posts
How do you connect to your modem? (Hardwired or WiFi?)
 
  #7  
Old 03-09-19, 05:53 AM
Member In Good Standing
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: usa
Posts: 159
Upvotes: 0
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
Both, but it no longer sees the wireless connection so I have it hardwired. Sees the connection but can’t connect outside to the internet. The connection works for my hardwired pc and new laptop and iPad, etc.
 
  #8  
Old 03-09-19, 07:31 AM
Member
Join Date: May 2010
Location: USA
Posts: 415
Upvotes: 0
Received 7 Votes on 6 Posts
Open a command prompt window and enter this command:

ipconfig /all

Post what it shows for your current IP address.

Unless I'm very much mistaken, Microsoft has decommissioned its XP authentication servers so if you reinstall you might not be able to get it authenticated, but there are alternatives.
 
  #9  
Old 03-09-19, 07:42 AM
Member
Join Date: Nov 2012
Location: USA
Posts: 1,187
Upvotes: 0
Received 11 Votes on 9 Posts
Suggestion-
The problems you're describing COULD be an indication of scrambled files due to hard drive errors. Before you tackle the network issue, take the time to make a "full disk image" of the laptop hard drive for future backup or virtual machine purposes.

1) Try turning full off, then rebooting once or twice. Laptops often misbehave coming out of sleep mode or low power mode.

2) Check the BIOS settings to make sure both network cards are enabled in BIOS.

3) Check the hard drive for disk errors, start with right-clicking the C:\ drive icon, IIRC Properties-Tools and then "error checking", run BOTH file-system AND bad-sectors
I like Seagate's "SeaTools" hard drive checker which does deeper diagnostics, and finds errors that Windows error checking does not.

4) You might try "CCleaner" from Piriform. It includes several "cleanup" options, for THIS situation, you want the registry cleaner. Save a copy of the registry to the laptop AND to a USB drive.

5) Go to Device Manager, see if there are any incorrect "network adapters" in addition to the correct ones.
Usually, to fix a bad network adapter in XP, you go to Device Manager and delete the network device, then re-boot the computer to force windows to reinstall the network drivers.

When you reboot and return to Device Manager, right click both the WiFi and Ethernet adapter entries and make sure the "allow windows to turn this off to save power" is NOT checked.


Post Script
An image file does double duty, it provides both a BACKUP and a VIRTUAL MACHINE.
A backup-file ensures you can restore the laptop back to how-it-is-now.
A virtual-machine-file allows you to go to another computer, double click the file and "run the laptop" on another computer.
 

Last edited by Hal_S; 03-09-19 at 09:06 AM.
  #10  
Old 03-09-19, 09:12 AM
Member
Thread Starter
Join Date: Sep 2017
Location: USA
Posts: 47
Received 1 Vote on 1 Post
it says Windows cannot find "ipconfig/all"
 
  #11  
Old 03-09-19, 11:14 AM
Member
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: Southeastern Pennsylvania
Posts: 2,947
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
  #12  
Old 03-09-19, 11:22 AM
Shadeladie's Avatar
Super Moderator
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: PA - USA
Posts: 4,248
Received 28 Votes on 22 Posts
Have you tried restarting your modem? It should detect all your devices afterwards. Worth a try anyways.
 
  #13  
Old 03-09-19, 11:44 AM
Member
Thread Starter
Join Date: Sep 2017
Location: USA
Posts: 47
Received 1 Vote on 1 Post
In the BIOS I do not see where the network cards are listed. I do see where it says Built in LAN is enabled.
In Device Manager it shows the wireless adaptor is disabled. If I try to enable it, it tries then goes back to a red X.

Physical address is: 00-0F-B0-9D-E1-6F
IP address is: 192.168.0.11

What next?
 
  #14  
Old 03-09-19, 12:11 PM
Member
Thread Starter
Join Date: Sep 2017
Location: USA
Posts: 47
Received 1 Vote on 1 Post
rebooted modem

No changes. When I open IE it does nothing. It says cannot find server or DNS Error.
In device manager the Intel PRO/Wireless 2200Bg network Connection continues to show a red X even after trying to reenable it. But shouldn't the wired LAN connection to the modem work?

I reinstalled Win XP from a disk I have but with only Service Pack 1. I know that it is way out of date but cannot update as I have no internet connection. Since this did not fix it I am guessing my problem is with the laptop hardware configuration rather than with Windows.

I am assuming I need to do a recovery from the original recovery partition that is on the laptop as I no longer have any of my original recovery discs. Tossed when I moved.

Does this sound like my only alternative?
 
  #15  
Old 03-09-19, 01:07 PM
Forum Topic Moderator
Join Date: Sep 2012
Location: USA
Posts: 800
Received 3 Votes on 2 Posts
Service Pack... that's what I was trying to remember in post 2. There was 3 service packs. You'll need all 3 of those.
 
  #16  
Old 03-09-19, 01:46 PM
Shadeladie's Avatar
Super Moderator
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: PA - USA
Posts: 4,248
Received 28 Votes on 22 Posts
Can you d/l the service packs on another computer and then copy it on to that one?
 
  #17  
Old 03-09-19, 01:55 PM
Forum Topic Moderator
Join Date: Sep 2012
Location: USA
Posts: 800
Received 3 Votes on 2 Posts
TBH, I cant, but someone that is more advanced than I may be able to. I found a disc on ebay that had all the service packs, ordered it & installed them.

EDIT: I just did a quick search on Ebay for a disc with all three service packs for XP & it brought up several results as well as this one that includes all 3 on one disc.
https://www.ebay.com/itm/Service-Pac...frcectupt=true
 
  #18  
Old 03-09-19, 02:15 PM
Shadeladie's Avatar
Super Moderator
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: PA - USA
Posts: 4,248
Received 28 Votes on 22 Posts
Plus the Lan and WIFI drivers. Sounds like a good deal, as long as it works. Then again, it's pretty cheap.
 
  #19  
Old 03-10-19, 08:21 AM
Group Moderator
Join Date: Oct 2004
Location: WI/MN
Posts: 19,266
Received 40 Votes on 37 Posts
Personally, if XP is needed, I would install it on a virtual machine. As you can see, maintaining a computer which no longer is compatible with the world around it is difficult.
 
  #20  
Old 03-10-19, 08:41 AM
Member In Good Standing
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: usa
Posts: 159
Upvotes: 0
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
Admittedly it is now more the challenge than the need. It was kind of handy just leaving the laptop and the auto connection in the trunk in case it was needed. After all it is a 20 year old car.
 
  #21  
Old 03-10-19, 10:03 AM
Member
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: Southeastern Pennsylvania
Posts: 2,947
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
I think I’m probably confused on this thread and mixing things up (is clancy and jeweler the same? Or 2 different people with similar problems?), probably my bad, but anyway, if your are saying you have a hard-wired interface for the LAN that you think should work, I think you should be looking on the laptop for a LAN interface device (maybe called “network connection”) in Device Manager under Network Adapters – not the Intel PRO/Wireless 2200Bg device. That PRO/Wireless 2200Bg is the wireless adapter.

Never had or used XP but I’m pretty sure XP has a default device driver for the LAN interface, but I don’t think there is such a thing as a default device driver for the wireless adapter.

Could be wrong but it wouldn’t hurt to check. The LAN device might just be disabled.
 
  #22  
Old 03-10-19, 10:20 AM
Shadeladie's Avatar
Super Moderator
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: PA - USA
Posts: 4,248
Received 28 Votes on 22 Posts
I think you're right zoesdad that clancy and jeweler are one and the same.

Sorry clancy/jeweler, but only one registered user name is allowed on here. Please pick one and the other will need to be banned.
 
  #23  
Old 03-10-19, 10:27 AM
Member
Join Date: May 2010
Location: USA
Posts: 415
Upvotes: 0
Received 7 Votes on 6 Posts
Sorry about the space in the command I gave you earlier. I should have realized you can't "cut-and-paste" and the space might not be apparent. Below I have changed to using <Space> to indicate where you should be leaving a space in the commands.

An IP address of 192.168.xxx.xxx tells me the PC is communicating with the router and the router is accommodating it by assigning it an IP address. If it had not been able to communicate with the router the IP address should have been 169.254.xxx.xxx. So I'm thinking the problem might be something software-related on the laptop (which seems logical, with the 'trauma' it has been through). This process will clear out all its temporary files and load fresh copies of the rest.

If you right-click on the network connection icon in the Status area of the Task Bar, it will offer a "Repair" function. You could run the repair function but the commands below do the same thing, plus a couple of other that also sometimes are beneficial. If you want to save some typing, try the "Repair" function first (it can't do any harm). If it doesn't work, then enter all the commands below (between the lines of dashes), and wait for the command prompt to "return" before entering the next.

The commands themselves are not case sensitive but the switches are, so "arp<Space>-d" must be entered with a lower-case 'D' and the nbtstat commands must be entered using an upper-case 'R.'

-------------------------------------

ipconfig<Space>/release

ipconfig<Space>/flushdns

ipconfig<Space>/renew

netsh<Space>interface<Space>ip<Space>delete<Space>arpcache

arp<Space>-d<Space>*
the above is entered as: arpspace<Space><minus sign><lower case D><Space><asterisk>

nbtstat<Space>-R
entered as: nbtstat<Space><minus sign><capital R>

nbtstat<Space>-RR
entered as: nbtstat<Space><minus sign><capital R><capital R>

ipconfig<Space>/registerdns

-------------------------------------

If that doesn't work, delete the NIC from device manager. This doesn't delete the device, it just uninstalls the driver. Reboot the system after and on boot-up XP will recognize that there is a device installed with no drivers and automatically reinstall them.

To uninstall, click on the Start button, then right-click on "My Computer" and choose "Manage"



In the left-hand pane choose "Device Manager" (this screen shot is Win7 but the differences in this case are of no consequence) Then in the right-hand pane, click on the triangle next to "Network adapters." This will cause a list of installed adapters to be displayed.

Right-click on your adapter, choose "Uninstall," follow the prompts, then reboot.
 
  #24  
Old 03-10-19, 10:31 AM
Member In Good Standing
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: usa
Posts: 159
Upvotes: 0
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
Yes, they are both me. I did not realize I had two. I guess I had one on my pc then, unknowingly signed up again on my iPad. I will delete one.

Regarding the laptop, it has two problems. One is the wireless is not working. The second is the wired LAN sees the connection to the cable router but still does not connect to the internet. It shows how long it has been connected and says it is a 10 mbps (?) connection. I can live without the wireless but would like to be able to connect to the internet.
 
  #25  
Old 03-10-19, 10:32 AM
Shadeladie's Avatar
Super Moderator
Join Date: Jan 2005
Location: PA - USA
Posts: 4,248
Received 28 Votes on 22 Posts
You can't delete them. I need to do it. Just let me know which one.
 
  #26  
Old 03-10-19, 10:41 AM
Member In Good Standing
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: usa
Posts: 159
Upvotes: 0
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
Either one. Delete jeweler please.
 
  #27  
Old 03-10-19, 02:28 PM
Member In Good Standing
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: usa
Posts: 159
Upvotes: 0
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
Thanks to Fred Dobbs for the detailed instructions. I will let you know tomorrow if that solved my problem.
 
  #28  
Old 03-11-19, 08:34 AM
Member
Thread Starter
Join Date: Sep 2017
Location: USA
Posts: 47
Received 1 Vote on 1 Post
response to Fred Dobbs suggestions

Went through your instructions. All went fine except when I typed the instructions
nbstat -R
and
nbstat -RR
one at a time, they both returned the window that said windows cannot find nbstat.
Removed the contents of Network adapters and rebooted. It reinstalled those four items:
1394 Net Adapter
Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG Network Connection (again has a red X)
MAC Bridge Miniport
Marvell Yukon 88E8036 PCI-E Fast Ethernet Controller

Then tried to set up a new Network Connect with the New Connection Wizard. Still no internet.

In Network Connections it shows 4 items:
Wireless Network Connection 3 Disabled
Local Area Connection 3 Enabled, Bridged
Network Bridge (Network Bridge) 10 Enabled
1394 Connection 2 Enabled, Bridged

What am I doing wrong?


 
  #29  
Old 03-11-19, 10:55 AM
Member
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: Southeastern Pennsylvania
Posts: 2,947
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
clancy – the command is nbtstat (not nbstat).

What are you getting this from:

Physical address is: 00-0F-B0-9D-E1-6F
IP address is: 192.168.0.11
 
  #30  
Old 03-11-19, 11:09 AM
Member
Thread Starter
Join Date: Sep 2017
Location: USA
Posts: 47
Received 1 Vote on 1 Post
Do I start over with each command in order or just do the ones I screwed up?
 
  #31  
Old 03-11-19, 11:17 AM
Member
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: Southeastern Pennsylvania
Posts: 2,947
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
It looks like you can just start over. It looks like the commands are for interrogating and refreshing parameters for networking and routing.
 
  #32  
Old 03-11-19, 02:36 PM
Member
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: Southeastern Pennsylvania
Posts: 2,947
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
if the other commands don't fix it :

In Network Connections it shows 4 items:

Wireless Network Connection 3 Disabled
Local Area Connection 3 Enabled, Bridged
Network Bridge (Network Bridge) 10 Enabled
1394 Connection 2 Enabled, Bridged
Look at the properties for this adapter –
Wireless Network Connection 3 Disabled
and see if there is anything like “Disable Upon Wired Connect” set to TRUE. If so the wireless adapter would be automatically disabled if the system senses a wired connection – and you have a wired connection. So even if there is a driver available for the wireless connection I think the system would keep the wireless network connection in the disabled state.

You should also look at the properties for this adapter –

Local Area Connection 3 Enabled, Bridged
and see if there is anything about “bridging” (Looks like it is bridged since the printout says “Enabled,Bridged”). If so I think that should be turned off.

‘Bridging’ may be compounding the problem at this point, or at least making it harder to troubleshoot, since you really are only interested in one network and don’t need two. (If bridged the laptop is combining the 2 networks that it is connected to: i.e., is combining the Local Area Connection 3 and the Wireless Network Connection 3).

If bridging is turned OFF, then possibly the Local Area Connection 3 would work OK by itself. I am assuming that all through this troubleshooting so far, the laptop has been connected to the router with an Ethernet cable (that would be Local Area Connection 3).

It wants to set up a home network.
I think you have to designate one of the network interfaces as your internet interface. The system can’t know. You would be just changing parameters in the laptop and that won’t affect the rest of your network. I don’t know what the commands are in XP but I would designate Local Area Connection 3 as your internet interface (and as I said previously with bridging OFF).
 
  #33  
Old 03-12-19, 07:19 AM
Member
Thread Starter
Join Date: Sep 2017
Location: USA
Posts: 47
Received 1 Vote on 1 Post
there is no option listed in wireless network connection to disable it if it sees a wired connection.
I removed the bridged statements. no longer mentioned in this window.
It says Wireless … disabled
Local Area Connection 3 enabled
1394 Connection 2 enabled
tried setting up a network and still no connect...

am about through with this old laptop. You have been kind and patient offering me all your suggestions
 
  #34  
Old 03-12-19, 07:54 AM
Member
Join Date: Nov 2012
Location: USA
Posts: 1,187
Upvotes: 0
Received 11 Votes on 9 Posts
Originally Posted by stickshift
Originally Posted by Clancy
I have an old laptop that operates in Win XP Pro because I have a program for car repair that does not work on any of the newer OS.
Personally, if XP is needed, I would install it on a virtual machine. As you can see, maintaining a computer which no longer is compatible with the world around it is difficult.
Has the OP tried installing/running the software using "compatibility mode" on a Windows7-8-10 Computer? You can tell those newer operating systems to emulate Windows XP when running a specific program; this is even simpler than running an entire virtual machine ("VM") to emulate the laptop.

On the subject of VM, it is much better to mess around with configuration settings on a VM version of the laptop first... Think of a virtual-machine-laptop as the computer version of Gary Sinese in the Lunar Module simulator in 'Apollo 13'. You can try out different solutions, without affecting the real equipment. Once you've worked things out on the VM simulated laptop, then you go and do them for real.
 

Last edited by Hal_S; 03-12-19 at 08:20 AM.
  #35  
Old 03-12-19, 08:18 AM
Member
Join Date: Nov 2012
Location: USA
Posts: 1,187
Upvotes: 0
Received 11 Votes on 9 Posts
Originally Posted by clancy
I am about through with this old laptop.
You might want to consider that the LAN card is dead or dying.

A replacement USB-to-LAN dongle is only $9, and a nice tool to have around.

 
  #36  
Old 03-12-19, 08:21 AM
Member
Thread Starter
Join Date: Sep 2017
Location: USA
Posts: 47
Received 1 Vote on 1 Post
Thanks, good idea. I will spend the $9.
 
  #37  
Old 03-12-19, 08:26 AM
Member
Join Date: Sep 2002
Location: welland ontario
Posts: 6,443
Received 54 Votes on 51 Posts
The device may come with drivers. Verify that is certified for XP use.
 
  #38  
Old 03-12-19, 11:34 AM
Member
Join Date: Jan 2008
Location: Southeastern Pennsylvania
Posts: 2,947
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
It seems to me that at least one of those two interfaces, wireless or wired, must be working and communicating with the router as Fred_C pointed out in post #23:

An IP address of 192.168.xxx.xxx tells me the PC is communicating with the router and the router is accommodating it by assigning it an IP address. If it had not been able to communicate with the router the IP address should have been 169.254.xxx.xxx. So I'm thinking the problem might be something software-related on the laptop (which seems logical, with the 'trauma' it has been through).
I don’t see how it would be the wireless interface that is working if the wireless is Disabled (but if the configuration is screwed up enough possibly the wireless interface could be working to some degree although labeled “Disabled” at the same time).

It seems to me at least, then, that the LAN interface must in fact be working.

(there is the possibility however, that the IP could be static and thus there actually is no communication going on with the router. I think if an ipconfig /all was posted that would help)
 
  #39  
Old 03-12-19, 12:43 PM
Member
Thread Starter
Join Date: Sep 2017
Location: USA
Posts: 47
Received 1 Vote on 1 Post
success but more questions

I did a recovery of the original hard drive as of about 10 years ago. Now I have the internet and wireless connections. Wow. It works, kind of... I have IE6 and it only goes to a very few places. Trying to access Windows updates so I can at least get the service packs 1,2,&3. But it will not open the windows update site. Trying to figure out how to update IE6.
At present it opens Bing search and just a few websites. It just will not open the windows update page.
Can I download win xp updates to a thumb drive on my pc and then plug it into the win xp laptop?

Guess I now see why this old laptop needs to be thrown out.
 
  #40  
Old 03-12-19, 12:52 PM
Member
Join Date: Dec 1999
Location: Cleveland, OH USA
Posts: 557
Upvotes: 0
Received 0 Votes on 0 Posts
this link will take you to the Microsoft download page. just change the search for SP2 and SP3

Microsoft Update Catalog

- Peter
 
Reply

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are Off
Pingbacks are Off
Refbacks are Off


Thread Tools
Search this Thread
Display Modes