Code Question

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  #1  
Old 03-28-06, 01:23 PM
JIGGA WATT
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Code Question

Is There A Code For Having The Ground Facing Up On A Recepticle In The 2002 Code Or The 2005 Code. If So Could Someone Tell Me The Article Where To Find It.
 
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Old 03-28-06, 01:53 PM
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This is not in the code. To my knowledge it never has been. It is a personal preference.
 
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Old 03-28-06, 02:49 PM
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100% personal preference. You can have the ground at any direction you like. Up, down, right, left, any angle you like.
 
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Old 03-28-06, 03:52 PM
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<img src="http://leviton.com/acenti/presskit_v2/Images/PressRelease_Images/Acenti_Product_Line_Overview/Triplex_receptacle-lowres.jpg">
 
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Old 03-28-06, 04:03 PM
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There are a couple of things to consider when orienting the receptacle. Some appliances, such as refrigerators and washers, have flat plugs. If the ground hole on the receptacle is up, then you have to put the plug in "upside down" and it will strain the cord and may fall lout. If you are putting outlets along a garage or shop wall, I would suggest that the ground be up. I have seen metal items dropped (such as a screwdriver that rolled off a shelf) that just happened to hit across the two prongs of the plug, because it was hanging out and down a little bit. If a plug with the ground up does happen to start to fall out of the outlet, the ground will be first exposed, rather than the hot blade.
 
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Old 03-28-06, 04:22 PM
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Originally Posted by fixitron
There are a couple of things to consider when orienting the receptacle. Some appliances, such as refrigerators and washers, have flat plugs. If the ground hole on the receptacle is up, then you have to put the plug in "upside down" and it will strain the cord and may fall lout. If you are putting outlets along a garage or shop wall, I would suggest that the ground be up. I have seen metal items dropped (such as a screwdriver that rolled off a shelf) that just happened to hit across the two prongs of the plug, because it was hanging out and down a little bit. If a plug with the ground up does happen to start to fall out of the outlet, the ground will be first exposed, rather than the hot blade.
This is where the German Schuko style outlet has proven to be superior in design. Plugs can go in either way, up or down (some places in Europe still have 220 volts where neither wire is grounded because it is derived from a 220Y/127 volt three phase system). And the outlet is recessed in so that no power contact is made until the plug base itself is inside the well (this also protects people from arcs due to plugging and unplugging under heavy load).

More info and pictures: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schuko
 
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Old 03-28-06, 05:12 PM
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I certainly favor polarized plugs for lamps and such under the American system.


> the German Schuko style outlet has proven to be superior in design.

Looking at it, I agree. There's a lot to be said for it.
I think a spring-loaded contact switch could be added to the sides so that the outlet would not be hot until a plug was pushed into the socket.

The disadvantages I see are:

1. It needs a big plug.
Of course, it also supports a big plug which can be an advantage for many applications.

2. It must take a big box.
 
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Old 03-28-06, 06:52 PM
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Originally Posted by bolide
I certainly favor polarized plugs for lamps and such under the American system.
Given our legacy of appliances which make an assumption about, and even depend on, a particular current conductor being grounded, we therefore must have a wire grounded, and control which it is. So that does mean a polarized plug/outlet. Even though most of continental Europe is wired on a 2-wire system (though three phase is more readily available there than here for homes ... at 400/230 volts there) the appliances are required to not expose either current carrying conductor in any way, which is almost at that level here in the USA, now. The big exception we still have is the pluggable lamp that has an Edison style screw base in which one can still easily touch the screw shell inside the hole while feeling for where to screw in a new bulb in the dark. Presumably, permanently wired luminaires would not have that issue in Europe, but as I understand it, the Edison style base is not allowed in pluggable lamps in Germany.
 
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Old 03-28-06, 09:29 PM
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> Given our legacy of appliances which make an assumption about,
> and even depend on, a particular current conductor being grounded,
> we therefore must have a wire grounded, and control which it is.

This is a good idea.


> Even though most of continental Europe is wired on a 2-wire system
> ... the appliances are required to not expose either current carrying
> conductor in any way, which is almost at that level here in the USA

What is the design of a toaster?


> The big exception we still have is the pluggable lamp that has an
> Edison style screw base
Right.


> Presumably, permanently wired luminaires would not have that
> issue in Europe, but as I understand it, the Edison style base
> is not allowed in pluggable lamps in Germany.

Interesting. I assume that they have some kind of locking base.
The Edison base design is very efficient (minimal material, ease of manufacture) for filament lamps, so I'm interested to know what they use.
 
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Old 03-29-06, 07:45 AM
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  #11  
Old 03-29-06, 11:33 AM
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Originally Posted by bolide
> Even though most of continental Europe is wired on a 2-wire system
> ... the appliances are required to not expose either current carrying
> conductor in any way, which is almost at that level here in the USA

What is the design of a toaster?
I would presume the frame is connected to the grounding wire (more appliances there are required to have the grounding plug than here), or a non-metallic outer frame is used. Inside, the elements are likely well shield from prying fingers.

Originally Posted by bolide
Interesting. I assume that they have some kind of locking base.
The Edison base design is very efficient (minimal material, ease of manufacture) for filament lamps, so I'm interested to know what they use.
A friend in Germany described the bulbs as bi-pins and tubular like seen in torchiere lamps. He also said lamps with a small transformer and a 12 volt bulb (bayonet base) are common. A friend in Norway said fluorescent lighting is rather common even in pluggable lamps.
 
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Old 03-29-06, 01:07 PM
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toaster

> the elements are likely well shielded from prying fingers.

I don't know how.
Fingers aren't the problem.
The problem is a metal knife being used to pop the toast early etc.


> He also said lamps with a small transformer and a 12 volt bulb

Sounds inefficient.


> A friend in Norway said fluorescent lighting is rather
> common even in pluggable lamps.

Pretty expensive when the lamp gets knocked over.
 
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Old 03-29-06, 10:51 PM
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Originally Posted by bolide
> the elements are likely well shielded from prying fingers.

I don't know how.
Fingers aren't the problem.
The problem is a metal knife being used to pop the toast early etc.
I don't know how that could be resolved. I could imagine some ways varying from a fine screen to a layer of Ceran (the same stuff glass cooktops are made from).
Originally Posted by bolide
> He also said lamps with a small transformer and a 12 volt bulb

Sounds inefficient.
Not any more so than any other low voltage lighting.

Incandescent filaments can be made to run hotter (this is more efficient because it shifts the emitted spectrum further from infrared into visible light) and be made to last longer when the voltage is lower and the current is higher. Low voltage filaments are shorter and thicker compared to their higher voltage equivalents at the same wattage.
Originally Posted by bolide
> A friend in Norway said fluorescent lighting is rather
> common even in pluggable lamps.

Pretty expensive when the lamp gets knocked over.
The ones I've seen here in the US seem pretty solid to me. They have a small short fluorescent tube.
 
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