There are different types of groundwater pumps used to move water, depending mainly on the depth at which it is found. Groundwater may be just below the surface or deep in the earth. The original way of moving groundwater was from an open well using a bucket and rope. This method is still applied in many places, though it is limited in terms of the volume of water that can be moved as well as the depth from which it can be fetched. Modern pumps will move water from great depths via pipes and at high speeds. There are several types.
1. Hand and Treadle Pumps
These types of pumps employ the use of human power to pump water from the ground. It is more efficient when compared to using a bucket and rope but cannot be used in a commercial setting due to the limitation of being manually powered. These pumps are easy to assemble and maintain. They are cost-effective and work well where the water is not very deep. The treadle pumps will, however, give more output, as it is powered using a leg pump as opposed to a hand pump. These pumps are mainly used to irrigate small pieces of land.
2. Low Pressure Suction Pumps
These types of pumps use a sucking force or pressure which pulls up the water from the source. These pumps are used above the ground and need to be near the water source, as they are not very powerful. Their lack of power means that they can only operate at depths of up to 7 meters. The types of suction pumps include a piston, the diaphragm, and semi-rotary pumps. These pumps are ideal for moving water from a river, stream, lake, or swamp to a nearby reservoir or sprinkling on nearby plants.
3. High Pressure Suction Pumps
These are high-performance pumps that can get water from very deep. They will usually have a motor action involved in their operation and are very powerful. These pumps are more expensive to purchase and run, but give higher output. There are many variations to these pumps, but they come in two main categories: centrifugal pumps and positive displacement pumps.
Centrifugal pumps use a rotating motion to propel the water through the pipes. These pumps will have increased output when they have an increased blade surface on their rotors.
Positive displacement pumps have an expanding cavity on their suction side while the cavity decreases on the discharge side. They provide a constant volume even when there is variance in the discharge pressure. They are also referred to as constant flow pumps.
It is important to identify the correct pump you need depending on the purpose while also keeping in mind the power source, availability of parts, and servicing technicians. All these factors should guide you in acquiring the type of pump suitable for you.