Ball valves are valves that come along with a spherical disc that controls the flow of water. When the sphere is aligned with both the valve ends, the flow takes place. The flow is blocked when the ball is rotated out of alignment. Leverage is provided by the handle which is aligned to enable you to view the position of the valve.
V Port Ball Valves
V port ball valves either have a V shaped seat or V shaped ball. This type of ball valve allows the opening and closing of the orifice in a high controlled manner providing linear flow to the stream. When the valve is opened after the closed position, the V end is opened allowing steady flow control. These design types require powerfully built construction to withstand greater velocities which may damage standard valves.
A full port, or more commonly called a full bore ball valve, consists of an over-sized ball to ensure the hole within the ball is of the exact size of the pipeline which thus results in reduced friction loss. There is no restriction for the flow of fluid but the valve is expensive though it is larger and is mainly used in the system which requires free flow of the fluid.
A reduced port is widely known as reduced bore ball valves, in which the flow of fluid through the valve is exactly one pipe smaller in size than the pipe size of valve providing a smaller flow area than the pipe.