A solenoid switch is used to control large current circuits through low current switches. Such devices possess high current switch which will be controlled by a magnetic actuator called the solenoid. As and when current flows through the solenoid, the solenoid core will move, forcing the high current switch to the closed position. Based on the size of the solenoid, the terminals are decided.
Normally a solenoid has 4 terminals. Among them, there are 2 terminals for the low current circuit and the other 2 terminals for the high current terminals of the solenoid. The solenoid is located at a point between the battery and its power, and the starter motor. When you turn on the vehicle, the solenoid immediately provides energy from the battery to the starter motor. The starter solenoid is one of the component that sends electrical power to the starter. To replace or repair the solenoid you need to remove the starter. The starter can be easily gained access by slightly raising the vehicle. It is very important to isolate the battery before trying to locate the solenoid. It is simple to wire a solenoid switch in a vehicle by carrying out the steps given below.
Tools and Materials Needed:
- 6 volt switch
- 12 volt DC motor
- Wire cutters
- 12 volt battery
- 6 volt battery
- Black electrical wire
- Wire strippers
- Red electrical wire
Step 1 - Locating the Terminals
Locate the high-current switch terminals on the solenoid switch. Verify the documentation details provided with the solenoid switch for the location of the 2 terminals.
Step 2 - Building the High Current Circuit
Cut 2 pieces of black wire and strip half an inch of wire out of each end for both the wires. Attach one end of the first black wire to the negative terminal of the 12 volt battery and the other end of the same wire to one of the high-current terminals on the solenoid switch. Fix one end of the second black wire to the second high-current terminal of the solenoid switch and the other end of the same wire to the negative terminal of the DC motor. Similarly cut one piece of red wire and strip half an inch of insulation out of each end. Join one end of the red wire to the positive terminal of the DC motor and the other end to the positive terminal of the 12 volt battery. This procedure completes the high current circuit.
Step 3 - Building the Low Current Circuit
Cut 2 pieces of black wire and strip half an inch of wire out of each end of both wires. Connect one end of the first wire to the first low current terminal on the solenoid switch and the other end to one of the two terminals on the 6 volt switch. Then fix the second 6 volt switch terminal to the negative side of the 6 volt battery. Now, place one red wire in between the positive terminal of the 6 volt battery and connect the other end to the second low-current terminal on the solenoid switch. This procedure completes the low current circuit.
Step 4 - Testing
After all the connections are made appropriately, turn on the 6 volt switch and the DC motor will instantly start running.